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There are four prongs of quality and four ways to improve quality of product and service:

– Innovation in product and service
– Innovation in process
– Improvement of existing product and service
– Improvement of existing process

The common mistake is the supposition that quality is ensured by No. 4, improvement of process, that operations going off without blemish on the factory floor, in the bank, in the hotel will ensure quality. Good operations are essential, yet they do not ensure quality. Quality is made in the boardroom.


Page 41 from “The Need to Change”, 1989.


Deming, W. Edwards. (2013). The Essential Deming: Leadership Principles from the Father of Quality. McGraw Hill Education.

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