From Dr. Deming’s last interview; published in Industry Week magazine.
The results of a system must be managed by paying attention to the entire system. When we optimize sub-components of the system we don’t necessarily optimize the overall system. This is true when looking at the people as Dr. Deming mentions. It is also true when optimizing say one department or one process.
Optimizing the results for one process is not the same as operating that process in the way that leads to the most benefit for the overall system.
It is a lot easier within an organization that doesn’t view the organization as a system to assign responsibility to achieve specific results to specific individuals and components of the organization. Which is likely why most organization manage themselves this way. Even they see the risks of such behavior and so most often there are requirements to consult with those who are impacted.
But most often these efforts to have people cooperate outside of what they are held accountable for are weak and the primary focus is on optimizing what they are accountable for. And the organization suffers even while improving results of components because the most significant gains are to be made in managing the organization as a system not in optimizing components within the system.
The management system will nearly always determine how the individuals working within it manage. The lack of teamwork is not something that the individuals bring to the workplace that failure to work together is the result of how the organization has been setup. To change behavior the management system must be changed.
Related: Break Down Barriers Between Departments – Why do you hire dead wood? Or why do you hire live wood and kill it? – Dr. Russell Ackoff Webcast on Systems Thinking – Where There is Fear You Do Not Get Honest Figures – Distorting the System, Distorting the Data or Improving the System